The isolation of fenugreek gum are done with water/dilute alkali; so that the product yield comes different 13.6 to 38%, production of gum depends on the fenugreek seed variety and extraction methods.
In a general manner, polysaccharides play most important roles as thickening, gelling, and emulsifying, hydrating, and suspending agents, finding diverse applications.
The fenugreek gum has the highest galactose (48%; M/G, 1.02:1) in its, and its molecule have linear mannan backbone, α 1→6 linked single galactose grafts with nearly all the mannose groups of the main chain part, as well fenugreek, Lucerne (Medicago sativa) and clover (Trifolium pratense), have less common galactomannans, have 48% galactose. The molecular weight of fenugreek gum is 30,000 Da, corresponding to an average presence of 180–190 monosaccharides (mannose + galactose) units in a molecule. On an average, the linear mannan backbone of fenugreek polysaccharide is built up of 90–95, β, 1→4 linked mannopyranosyl units and each backbone monomer carries and α 1→6 linked galactopyranosyl group.
Fenugreek gum is extracted from the endosperm or ground whole seed with water or dilute alkali, and the yield varies from 13.6 to 38%, depending on the variety/cultivar and extraction methods.
Fenugreek gum is a nongelling galactomannan and shows resistance against freeze-up–thaw treatments.
1. It is having good viscosity and gelling properties hence it may be used in large-scale.
2. As regards to the cost factor, fenugreek is cheaper compared to other gum.
3. The supply of high quality of a product (gum), particularly when there is an increased world demand for it.
4. Its approval as a food, cosmetic, or drug additive by the suitable government agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Becomes a significant concern. In many cases, a physically modified, partially chemically derivatives gum provides better functionality compared.
Purified fenugreek gum is a nearly colorless or slightly cream-colored powder, which can have characteristics, faint smell of fenugreek seed. It has a bland taste.